Many could not believe that such an option could even be considered. Receiving a second invitation from the Emperor in Beijing he accepted, but died en route in 1588. [35] He spent his winters in Lhasa, writing commentaries and the rest of the year travelling and teaching many thousands of monks and lay people. as predicted by his predecessor. They now only needed to locate a hill and a house with peculiar guttering. [249], By the Himalayan tradition, phowa is the discipline that is believed to transfer the mindstream to the intended body. Since you enjoy such honor, you have to make efforts to promote self-cultivation, study and propagate Buddhism, also help me in promoting Buddhism and goodness of the previous generation of the Dalai Lama for the people, and also for the long life of our country"[194][193], The Dalai Lama, his later generations and the local government cherished both the jade seal of authority, and the jade sheets of authority. The Chinese were disappointed when he did not die like his predecessors, and he was to live long enough to give them much more cause for regret. Tibetan historian Nyima Gyaincain points out that the written wills from the fifth Dalai Lama before he died explicitly said his title and authority were from the Emperor of China, and he was subordinate of the Emperor of China Realizing the importance of modern education for the children of Tibetan refugees, His Holiness impressed upon Nehru the need to create a Special Section for Tibetan Education within the Indian Ministry of Education. He died on the way, in 1634[128] but his vassal Choghtu Khong Tayiji, continued to advance against the Gelugpas, even having his own son Arslan killed after Arslan changed sides, submitted to the Dalai Lama and become a Gelugpa monk. Their force sent to fetch Kelzang Gyatso however was intercepted and destroyed by Qing armies alerted by Lhazang. [243], In March 2019, the Dalai Lama spoke out about his successor, saying that after his death he is likely to be reincarnated in India. [270][271] Since by tradition, the Panchen Lama must approve the reincarnation of the Dalai Lama, that is another possible method of control. Looking into the waters of the sacred lake, Lhamoi Lhatso, in southern Tibet, he clearly saw the Tibetan letters Ah, Ka and Ma float into view. After conducting a series of tests on the boy, they took him to a monastery known as a Kumbum where he trained to be a monk. ", "Dalai Lama says Tibet wants to remain part of China", "We want to stay within China: His Holiness the Dalai Lama of Tibet", "Dalai Lama says 'Europe belongs to Europeans, "Exclusive: Dalai Lama contemplates Chinese gambit after his death", "Dalai Lama contemplates Chinese gambit after his death", "The Dalai Lama emphasizes that he does not support Tibetan independence and hopes to visit China as a Nobel Prize winner", "Dispatches from the Tibetan Front: Dharamshala, India,", "China's Tensions With Dalai Lama Spill into the Afterlife", "Dalai Lama's confirmation of reincarnation", "China Says It Will Decide Who the Dalai Lama Shall Be Reincarnated As", "China says boy picked by Dalai Lama now a college graduate", "Reincarnation of living Buddha needs gov't approval", "Dalai Lama challenges China – with a referendum on reincarnation", "Dalai's reincarnation will not be found under Chinese control", Dalai Lama may forgo death before reincarnation, A Reader's Guide to the Works of the Dalai Lama (Shambhala Publications), Jigdral Yeshe Dorje (2nd Dudjom Rinpoche), Basic points unifying Theravāda and Mahāyāna, Self-immolation protests by Tibetans in China, Convention Between Great Britain and China Respecting Tibet (1906), Treaty of friendship and alliance with Mongolia (1913), Sino-Indian Trade Agreement over Tibetan Border (1954),, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Standard Tibetan-language text, Articles with text in Mongolian languages, Articles containing Mongolian-language text, Articles lacking reliable references from November 2017, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from May 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2014, गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. (Norbu & Turnbull 1968)[b], According to Mullin, on the other hand, it is improbable that the Manchus would have murdered any of these four for being 'unmanageable' since it would have been in their best interests to have strong Dalai Lamas ruling in Lhasa, he argues, agreeing with Richardson that it was rather "the ambition and greed for power of Tibetans" that might have caused the Lamas' early deaths. [94] [215][216] He identified with ordinary people rather than the court officials and often sat on his verandah in the sunshine with the office clerks. [55] In 12 years he passed the 12 grades of monkhood and took the highest vows. After 16 years of study as a novice monk, in 1702 in his 20th year he rejected full ordination and gave up his monk's robes and monastic life, preferring the lifestyle of a layman. [35][86] By now widely regarded as one of Tibet's greatest saints and scholars[87] he was invited back to Tashilhunpo. Their emptied lands were then awarded to other peoples. [34] He was made abbot of Tashilhunpo[88] and stayed there teaching in Tsang for 9 months. [7] The traditional function of the Dalai Lama as an ecumenical figure, holding together disparate religious and regional groups, has been taken up by the present fourteenth Dalai Lama. This arrangement, with a Kashag under the Dalai Lama or his regent, outlasted the Qing dynasty which collapsed in 1912. [231][232][233] The 14th Dalai Lama had become the joint most popular world leader by 2013, (tied with Barack Obama), according to a poll conducted by Harris Interactive of New York, which sampled public opinion in the US and six major European countries. He oversaw the creation of various new Tibetan administrative departments. [235] Fearing for his life in the wake of a revolt in Tibet in 1959, the 14th Dalai Lama fled to India, from where he led a government in exile. [139] In 1645, the Great Fifth began the construction of the Potala Palace in Lhasa. [90] In 1498 the Ringpung army captured Lhasa and banned the Gelugpa annual New Year Monlam Prayer Festival[90] started by Tsongkhapa for world peace and prosperity. There have been 14 recognised incarnations of the Dalai Lama: There has also been one non-recognised Dalai Lama, Ngawang Yeshe Gyatso, declared 28 June 1707, when he was 25 years old, by Lha-bzang Khan as the "true" 6th Dalai Lama – however, he was never accepted as such by the majority of the population. [148], In the same year, 1674, the Dalai Lama, then at the height of his powers and conducting a foreign policy independent of the Qing, caused Mongol troops to occupy the border post of Dartsedo between Kham and Sichuan, further annoying the Kangxi Emperor who (according to Smith) already considered Tibet as part of the Qing Empire. His Holiness had two sisters and four brothers. [123] However, in 1618 Sonam Rabten, the former attendant of the 4th Dalai Lama who had become the Ganden Phodrang treasurer, secretly identified the child,[124] who had been born to the noble Zahor family at Tagtse castle, south of Lhasa. Then, the Panchen Lama, in Shigatse, negotiated the lifting of the ban, enabling the boy to be recognised as Lobsang Gyatso, the 5th Dalai Lama. [118] As he was dying, his Mongolian converts urged him not to leave them, as they needed his continuing religious leadership. I liked to sit in the hens' nest and make clucking noises. Based at Drepung in winter and Chokorgyel in summer, he spent his remaining years in composing commentaries, regional teaching tours, visiting Tashilhunpo from time to time and acting as abbot of these four great monasteries. Eighty five years ago, a little boy was born in a remote corner of Tibet. [120] So, in 1620, Mongol troops allied to the Gelugpa who had camped outside Lhasa suddenly attacked and destroyed the two Tsangpa camps and drove them out of Lhasa, enabling the Dalai Lama to be brought out of hiding and publicly enthroned there in 1622. According to Mullin, Smith and Shakabpa however, the 12th Dalai Lama's Regent, Reting Rinpoche, was deposed in 1862 in a coup by Gyalpo Shetra and Tibet was ruled by despots or assemblies of abbots and ministers for the next eleven years, that is until 1873 when the 12th Dalai Lama assumed power. His Holiness recalls his mother as undoubtedly one of the kindest people he has ever known. [143], When the 5th Dalai Lama returned, he was granted by the emperor of China a golden seal of authority and golden sheets with texts written in Manchu, Tibetan and Chinese languages. Altan Khan and his followers quickly adopted Buddhism as their state religion, replacing the prohibited traditional Shamanism. Three weeks after escaping Lhasa, on 31 March 1959, His Holiness and his entourage reached the Indian border from where they were escorted by Indian guards to the town of Bomdila in the present day Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. [45], Despite this, when the Tashilhunpo monks started hearing what seemed credible accounts that an incarnation of Gendun Drup had appeared nearby and repeatedly announced himself from the age of two, their curiosity was aroused. [26] In fact, according to the "Birth to Exile" article on the 14th Dalai Lama's website, he is "the seventy-fourth in a lineage that can be traced back to a Brahmin boy who lived in the time of Buddha Shakyamuni. The boy, Lhamo Thondup, was first taken to Kumbum monastery. [250][275] According to Robert D. Kaplan, this could mean that "the next Dalai Lama might come from the Tibetan cultural belt that stretches across northern India, Nepal, and Bhutan, presumably making him even more pro-Indian and anti-Chinese". During these years and for the rest of his life (he died in 1658), "there was little doubt that politically Sonam Chophel [Rabten] was more powerful than the Dalai Lama". Tibet was, to them, exile from the urbanity and culture of Peking; and so far from dominating the Regents, the Ambans allowed themselves to be dominated. After his return from exile in India and Sikkim during January 1913, he assumed control of foreign relations and dealt directly with the Maharaja, with the British Political officer in Sikkim and with the king of Nepal – rather than letting the Kashag or parliament do it. On 17 March 1959 during a consultation with the Nechung Oracle, His Holiness was given an explicit instruction to leave the country. [95] It seemed likely that if the letter Ah referred to Amdo, then Ka must indicate the monastery at Kumbum, which was indeed three-storied and turquoise-roofed. [3] The 14th and current Dalai Lama is Tenzin Gyatso, who lives as a refugee in India. Dharamshala: Tibetan spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, has advised his followers in China to chant a mantra to contain the threat posed by coronavirus, which has reportedly left over 100 dead. The respected Reting Rinpoche was recalled once again to act as Regent and requested to lead the search for the next incarnation, the twelfth. He did recognize him in 1710, however, after sending a Qing official party to assist Lhazang in 'restoring order'; these were the first Chinese representatives of any sort to officiate in Tibet. When the Qing forces did arrive they punished the losers and exiled the Seventh Dalai Lama to Kham, under the pretence of sending him to Beijing, because his father had assisted the defeated, anti-Qing faction. [65], At the age of 50, he entered meditation retreat at Narthang. By the time they reached Kumbum, the members of the search party felt that they were on the right track. That way, if the situation deteriorated, I could easily seek exile across the border with India. [69] At last, at the age of 84, older than any of his 13 successors, in 1474 he went on foot to visit Narthang Monastery on a final teaching tour. The next nine years saw His Holiness trying to evade a full-scale military takeover of Tibet by China on the one hand and placating the growing resentment among Tibetan resistance fighters against the Chinese aggressors on the other. Because Amdo, the province where we were both born, and in which Kumbum is situated, lies so close to China, it had quickly fallen under control of the Communists. [120] He attacked Choghtu Khong Tayiji at Kokonor in 1637 and defeated and killed him, thus eliminating the Tsangpa and the Karmapa's main Mongol patron and protector. “Yet he was a kind man too and he never bore grudges”. [34] His nomad parents kept sheep and goats and lived in tents. The lake is sometimes referred to as "Pelden Lhamo Kalideva", which has been taken as a reason to claim that Palden Lhamo is an emanation of the goddess Kali, the shakti of the Hindu God Shiva. According to their plan they would set him free to go to Lhasa if he would undertake to persuade me to accept Chinese rule. When Lhamo Thondup was two years old, a search party that had been sent out by the Tibetan government to find the new incarnation of the Dalai Lama arrived at Kumbum monastery. His Holiness the Dalai Lama was born on 6 July 1935 to a Tibetan farming family in the small village of Taktser, located in the province of Amdo. On the imperial army's stately passage from Kumbum to Lhasa with the boy being welcomed adoringly at every stage, Khoshut Mongols and Tibetans were happy (and well paid) to join and swell its ranks. The name "Dalai Lama" is a combination of the Mongolic word dalai meaning "ocean" or "big" (coming from Mongolian title Dalaiyin qan or Dalaiin khan,[13] translated as Gyatso or rgya-mtsho in Tibetan)[14][15] and the Tibetan word བླ་མ་ (bla-ma) meaning "master, guru". Under his leadership, the sect went on growing in size and influence[80] and with its appeal of simplicity, devotion and austerity its lamas were asked to mediate in disputes between other rivals. As the scale of this natural phenomenon began to sink in, people naturally began to say that it was more than a simple earthquake: it was an omen. [156] At the same time, while this puppet 'Dalai Lama' had no political power, the Kangxi Emperor secured from Lhazang Khan in return for this support the promise of regular payments of tribute; this was the first time tribute had been paid to the Manchu by the Mongols in Tibet and the first overt acknowledgment of Qing supremacy over Mongol rule in Tibet. [120] For example, Ligdan Khan of the Chahars, a Mongol subgroup who supported the Tsang Karmapas, after retreating from advancing Manchu armies headed for Kokonor intending destroy the Gelug. [126] As a young man, being 22 years his junior, the Dalai Lama addressed him reverentially as "Zhalngo", meaning "the Presence". [77] In 1494, at 19, he met some opposition from the Tashilhunpo establishment when tensions arose over conflicts between advocates of the two types of succession, the traditional abbatial election through merit, and incarnation. [253], The particular form of Palden Lhamo at Lhamo La-tso is Gyelmo Maksorma, "The Victorious One who Turns Back Enemies". High Lamas often visit Lhamo La-tso, a lake in central Tibet, and watch for a sign from the lake itself. Through Altan Khan, the 3rd Dalai Lama requested to pay tribute to the Emperor of China in order to raise his State Tutor ranking, the Ming imperial court of China agreed with the request. [47] It was some 55 years after Tsongkhapa's death when eventually, the monastic authorities saw compelling evidence that convinced them the child in question was indeed the incarnation of their founder. “I am often asked whether I truly believe this. [82] He also stayed in Kongpo and Dagpo[83] and became known all over Tibet. All Dalai Lamas from the 3rd on were found with the help of such visions granted to regents. [164][165], These Dzungars, who were Buddhist, had supported the Fifth Dalai Lama and his regent. [63] Through hard work he became a leading lama, known as 'Perfecter of the Monkhood', 'with a host of disciples'. Finally, while acknowledging the possibility, the 14th Dalai Lama himself doubts they were poisoned. [158] This choice was in no way accepted by the Tibetan people, however, nor by Lhazang's princely Mongol rivals in Kokonor who resented his usurpation of the Khoshut Tibetan throne as well as his meddling in Tibetan affairs. He played a symbolic role in government, and, being profoundly revered by the Mongols, he exercised much influence with the Qing who now had now taken over Tibet's patronage and protection from them. The Dalai Lama puts a white scarf on Keith Alan Raniere after the Dalai Lama’s lecture, “Compassionate Ethics in Difficult Times” on May 6, 2009, in Albany, New York. [34], Gendun Drup was said to be the greatest scholar-saint ever produced by Narthang Monastery[62] and became 'the single most important lama in Tibet'. [163], In any case, the Kangxi Emperor took full advantage of having Kelzang Gyatso under Qing control at Kumbum after other Mongols from the Dzungar tribes led by Tsewang Rabtan who was related to his supposed ally Lhazang Khan, deceived and betrayed the latter by invading Tibet and capturing Lhasa in 1717. “On this first occasion, I stressed the need for my people to take a long-term view of the situation in Tibet. [35], Required to travel and teach without respite after taking full ordination in 1565, he still maintained extensive meditation practices in the hours before dawn and again at the end of the day. [36] After being given the Mongolian name 'Dalai',[37] he returned to Tibet to found the great monasteries of Lithang in Kham, eastern Tibet and Kumbum in Amdo, north-eastern Tibet. This did not come about for some eighteen months, however, because Ma Bufeng, the local Chinese Muslim warlord, refused to let the boy-incarnate be taken to Lhasa without payment of a large ransom. In gratitude to His Holiness the Dalai Lama: Virtual talk series in different languages on the four commitments of His Holiness the Dalai Lama begins. He also criticised the words carved on this gift as being faultily translated into Tibetan, writing that "The Tibetan version of the inscription of the seal was translated by a Mongol translator but was not a good translation". “I myself likewise had no particular intimation of what lay ahead. Due to his two periods of exile in 1904–1909 to escape the British invasion of 1904, and from 1910–1912 to escape a Chinese invasion, he became well aware of the complexities of international politics and was the first Dalai Lama to become aware of the importance of foreign relations. [187][188], The Eighth Dalai Lama, Jamphel Gyatso was born in Tsang in 1758 and died aged 46 having taken little part in Tibetan politics, mostly leaving temporal matters to his regents and the ambans. At the time of His Holiness’s birth she helped his mother run the house and acted as the midwife. This method was used a few times for both positions during the 19th century, but eventually fell into disuse. The Dalai Lama was paid $1 million to travel to America to endorse a controversial ‘sex cult’ that brainwashes and brands women, can reveal. Mongol law was reformed to accord with Tibetan Buddhist law. Historically the Dalai Lamas or their regents held political and religious leadership over Tibet from Lhasa with varying degrees of influence depending on the regions of Tibet and periods of history. [269], In September 2007, the Chinese government said all high monks must be approved by the government, which would include the selection of the 15th Dalai Lama after the death of Tenzin Gyatso. [35][256][257], High Lamas may also claim to have a vision by a dream or if the Dalai Lama was cremated, they will often monitor the direction of the smoke as an 'indication' of the direction of the expected rebirth. The Dalai Lama persuaded himself that the allegations against Raniere and Nxivm were unfounded, and revoked his cancellation. [121] Yonten Gyatso died at the age of 27 under suspicious circumstances and his chief attendant Sonam Rapten went on to discover the 5th Dalai Lama, became his chagdzo or manager and after 1642 he went on to be his regent, the Desi. The Book of Kadam,[22] the compilation of Kadampa teachings largely composed around discussions between the Indian sage Atiśa (980–1054) and his Tibetan host and chief disciple Dromtönpa[23][24] and Tales of the Previous Incarnations of Arya Avalokiteśvara,[25] nominate as many as sixty persons prior to Gendun Drub who are enumerated as earlier incarnations of Avalokiteśvara and predecessors in the same lineage leading up to him. [251], The High Lamas used several ways in which they can increase the chances of finding a person they claim to be the reincarnation. At 19, when the Kyichu River burst its banks and flooded Lhasa, he led his followers to rescue victims and repair the dykes. [66] This led to decades of military and political power struggles between Tsangpa dynasty forces and others across central Tibet. [144] However, Lobzang Gyatsho noted that "The Tibetan version of the inscription of the seal was translated by a Mongolian translator but was not a good translation". It was the ambition and greed for power of Tibetans that led to five successive Dalai Lamas being subjected to continuous tutelage. Hugh Richardson's summary of the period covering the four short-lived, 19th-century Dalai Lamas: After him [the 8th Dalai Lama, Jamphel Gyatso], the 9th and 10th Dalai Lamas died before attaining their majority: one of them is credibly stated to have been murdered and strong suspicion attaches to the other. [258], If there is only one boy found, the High Lamas will invite Living Buddhas of the three great monasteries, together with secular clergy and monk officials, to 'confirm their findings' and then report to the Central Government through the Minister of Tibet. [44] This is according to The Book of Kadam, the main text of the Kadampa school, to which the 1st Dalai Lama, Gendun Drup, first belonged. They tried to bring him to his monastery many times but people would not see him. [113], The name "Dalai Lama", by which the lineage later became known throughout the non-Tibetan world, was thus established and it was applied to the first two incarnations retrospectively. [226] Shakabpa on the other hand, without citing sources, notes that Trinley Gyatso was influenced and manipulated by two close acquaintances who were subsequently accused of having a hand in his fatal illness and imprisoned, tortured and exiled as a result. Haas, Michaela (2013). [34] He also established the method by which later Dalai Lama incarnations would be discovered through visions at the "oracle lake", Lhamo Lhatso. [81], Gendun Gyatso's popularity in Ü-Tsang grew as he went on pilgrimage, travelling, teaching and studying from masters such as the adept Khedrup Norzang Gyatso in the Olklha mountains. [225] Shetra died in 1864 and the Kashag re-assumed power. [196] At the age of 23 he was persuaded to assume the throne as ruler of Tibet with a Regent to assist him and after three years of this, when the Regent went to Beijing as ambassador in 1784, he continued to rule solo for a further four years. [19][better source needed], It traces the legend of the bodhisattva's incarnations as early Tibetan kings and emperors such as Songtsen Gampo and later as Dromtönpa (1004–1064). [222] He died after just 11 months, no reason for his sudden and premature death being given in these accounts, Shakabpa and Mullin's histories both being based on untranslated Tibetan chronicles. It had been led there by a number of signs. The Dalai Lama is known for his sense of humor. For the Qing, although the Dalai Lama was not required to kowtow to the emperor, who rose from his throne and advanced 30 feet to meet him, the significance of the visit was that of nominal political submission by the Dalai Lama since Inner Asian heads of state did not travel to meet each other but sent envoys. [150] The most dynamic and prolific of the early Dalai Lamas, he composed more literary works than all the other Dalai Lamas combined. “There now began a somewhat unhappy period of my life”, His Holiness was to write later, reflecting on his separation from his parents and the unfamiliar surroundings. [133] However, after a few months, Norbu betrayed him and led a rebellion against the Ganden Phodrang Government. He spoke in mystical verses, quoted classical texts out of the blue[73] and said he was Dromtönpa, an earlier incarnation of the Dalai Lamas. HBO’s 9-part docuseries, The Vow, takes us behind the scenes to show what transpired in part to get the Dalai Lama to come to Albany and lecture for a largely Nxivm audience. At the beginning of November, about a fortnight before the day of His Holiness's investiture, his eldest brother had arrived in Lhasa. As to the future, I stated my belief that, with truth, justice and courage as our weapons, we Tibetans would eventually prevail in regaining freedom for Tibet”. [145] Tibetan historian Nyima Gyaincain points out that based on the texts written on golden sheets, Dalai Lama was only a subordinate of the Emperor of China. It also increased Qing suspicion about Tibetan relations with the Mongol groups and led him to seek strategic opportunities to oppose and undermine Mongol influence in Tibet and eventually, within 50 years, to defeat the Mongols militarily and to establish the Qing as sole 'patrons and protectors' of Tibet in their place. The delighted Tibetans enthroned him as the Seventh Dalai Lama at the Potala Palace. The youngest brother, Tenzin Choegyal was also recognized as the reincarnation of another high lama, Ngari Rinpoche. The major subjects included logic, fine arts, Sanskrit grammar, and medicine, but the greatest emphasis was given to Buddhist philosophy which was further divided into a further five categories: Prajnaparamita, the perfection of wisdom; Madhyamika, the philosophy of the middle Way; Vinaya, the canon of monastic discipline; Abidharma, metaphysics; and Pramana, logic and epistemology. As he grew older, Karma Kagyu adherents, finding their sect was losing too many recruits to the monkhood to burgeoning Gelugpa monasteries, tried to contain Gelug expansion by launching military expeditions against them in the region. In 1645, after the unification of Tibet, the Fifth moved to the ruins of a royal fortress or residence on top of Marpori ('Red Mountain') in Lhasa and decided to build a palace on the same site. [148], The time of the Fifth Dalai Lama, who reigned from 1642 to 1682 and founded the government known as the Ganden Phodrang, was a period of rich cultural development. Exercised such political authority in Tibet Information, education, home, Security, religious Affairs and economic Affairs of... And watch for a sign from the cycle of birth and death Tibetans India! And workshops worldwide, as its Abbot, from its founding in 1447 how was the dalai lama discovered his.! The mummification process, the members of the situation deteriorated, I stressed the for... 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