Nevét Hernando vagy Fernando formában is használta. [13], After a battle in Otumba, they managed to reach Tlaxcala, having lost 870 men. The fifth, on the Honduras expedition, is contained in volume IV of the Documentos para la Historia de España.[53][54]. Cortes himself killed the Aztec emperor Montezuma before claiming Tenochtitlan for Spain, and became governor of New Spain. What Was Hernan Cortes' Expedition Route. In 1523, the Crown (possibly influenced by Cortés's enemy, Bishop Fonseca),[24] sent a military force under the command of Francisco de Garay to conquer and settle the northern part of Mexico, the region of Pánuco. Nous nous intéressons ici à la conquête entreprise par Hernan Cortés. Cortés crossed the lake and entered Tenochtitlán with his Spanish forces and with 1,000 Tlaxcaltecas. [50] Today the copy of the bust is in the "Hospital de Jesús Nazareno"[51] while the original is in Naples, Italy, in the Villa Pignatelli. Disgusted, he decided to return to Mexico in 1547. Probably the best source is his letters to the king which he wrote during the campaign in Mexico, but they are written with the specific purpose of putting his efforts in a favourable light and so must be read critically. His father was Martin Cortés de Monroy, an infantry captain from a refined but not influential family. [15]:89, In July 1519, his men took over Veracruz. During the siege he would construct brigantines in the lake and slowly destroy blocks of the city to avoid fighting in an urban setting. Toutes les informations de la Bibliothèque Nationale de France sur : Hernán Cortés (1485-1547) A few days after Cortés's return from his expedition, Ponce de León suspended Cortés from his office of governor of New Spain. In 1521, he defeated the Aztec natives in Tenochtitlan after a three-month siege. [16] Moctezuma repeatedly turned down the meeting, but Cortés was determined. [19], Meanwhile, Velázquez sent another expedition, led by Pánfilo de Narváez, to oppose Cortés, arriving in Mexico in April 1520 with 1,100 men. Four months later, Cortés founded Villa Rica de la Veracruz, the first city with the first city council on the American continent. Cortés sailed for Spain in 1528 to appeal to King Charles. Conquering Aztecs. Denying he had held back on gold due the crown, he showed that he had contributed more than the quinto (one-fifth) required. [13], On the way to Tenochtitlán, Cortés made alliances with indigenous peoples such as the Totonacs of Cempoala and the Nahuas of Tlaxcala. In 1511, Cortés accompanied Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, an aide of the Governor of Hispaniola, in his expedition to conquer Cuba. The Mexicas would fall back to Tlatelolco and even succeed in ambushing the pursuing Spanish forces, inflicting heavy losses, but would ultimately be the last portion of the island that resisted the conquistadores. In his letters to King Charles, Cortés claimed to have learned at this point that he was considered by the Aztecs to be either an emissary of the feathered serpent god Quetzalcoatl or Quetzalcoatl himself – a belief which has been contested by a few modern historians. In 1541 Cortés returned to Spain, where he died six years later of natural causes. 1514 was a year of growth, founding the towns of Trinidad, SantoEspiritu, Puerto Principe, and Santiago de Cuba. Hernán's mother was Catalína Pizarro Altamirano.[4]. In 1536, Cortés explored the northwestern part of Mexico and discovered the Baja California Peninsula. In his ornamental script, Spanish conquistador Hernán Cortés in 1527 commanded his servant to cooperate with a new governor arriving in Mexico from Spain, "because if … [citation needed]. ", This page was last edited on 1 December 2020, at 09:51. He wished the mendicants to be the main evangelists. [34] Cortés and the Franciscans had a particularly strong alliance in Mexico, with Franciscans seeing him as "the new Moses" for conquering Mexico and opening it to Christian evangelization. The proclamation of the king says in part: We, respecting the many labors, dangers, and adventures which you underwent as stated above, and so that there might remain a perpetual memorial of you and your services and that you and your descendants might be more fully honored ... it is our will that besides your coat of arms of your lineage, which you have, you may have and bear as your coat of arms, known and recognized, a shield ...[25]:43, The grant specifies the iconography of the coat of arms, the central portion divided into quadrants. During his travel to Spain, his property was mismanaged by abusive colonial administrators. ", Konetzke, Richard. [47] When the bones were first rediscovered, the supporters of the Hispanic tradition in Mexico were excited, but one supporter of an indigenist vision of Mexico "proposed that the remains be publicly burned in front of the statue of Cuauhtemoc, and the ashes flung into the air". Velázquez and Fonseca persuaded the regent to appoint a commissioner (a Juez de residencia, Luis Ponce de León) with powers to investigate Cortés's conduct and even arrest him. However, by doing so, he hoped to secure the good will of both her family and that of Velázquez.[11]. Martín Cortés, 2nd Marquess of the Valley of Oaxaca, [eɾˈnaŋ koɾˈtez ðe monˈroj i piˈθaro altamiˈɾano], Rodrigo de Monroy y Almaraz, 5th Lord of Monroy, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Spanish conquest of Yucatán § Hernán Cortés in the Maya lowlands, 1524–25, Spanish conquest of Guatemala § Cortés in Petén, Spanish conquest of Petén § Cortés in Petén, Instituto Nacional de Antropología e Historia, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, https://www.libertaddigital.com/cultura/historia/2019-04-06/ivan-velez-hechuras-de-hernan-cortes-87581/#:~:text=Era%20Fernando%20Cort%C3%A9s%20de%20buena,y%20en%20la%20paz%20tambi%C3%A9n, Francisco López de Gómara, "Hernan Cortés", "Xavier López Medellín: Los huesos de Hernán Cortés", "Mirror of the Cruel and Horrible Spanish Tyranny Perpetrated in the Netherlands, by the Tyrant, the Duke of Alba, and Other Commanders of King Philip II", "Recuerdos de España en Mexico: Hernán Cortes", "Hernán Cortés (1485–1547), Conqueror, Spain", Letter From Hernán Cortés to Charles the V, Rare Book and Special Collections Division, Praeclara Ferdinandi Cortesii de noua maris oceani Hyspania narratio sacratissimo... 1524, "Cobardía, falsedad y opportunismo español: algunas consideraciones sobre la "verdadera" historia de la conquista de la Nueva España", Appletons' Cyclopædia of American Biography, The letters by Cortés, in which Cortés describes the events related to the conquest of Mexico, The change of Hernán Cortés' self-image by means of the conquest, Hernan Cortes – The Conquistador of the Aztecs, "Hernán Cortés, marqués del Valle de Oaxaca", Independence of Spanish continental Americas, Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg, northernmost France, Law of coartación (which allowed slaves to buy their freedom, and that of others), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Hernán_Cortés&oldid=991690549, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2018, Articles needing additional references from November 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles needing additional references from November 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2010, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2011, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2015, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Cortés is a major villain in the 2000 animated movie, Brooks, Francis J. The remains were authenticated by INAH. In 1526, he built an imposing residence for himself, the Palace of Cortés in Cuernavaca, in a region close to the capital where he had extensive encomienda holdings. This son Martín Cortés was sometimes called "El Mestizo". And as to those who murmur against the Marqués del Valle [Cortés], God rest him, and who try to blacken and obscure his deeds, I believe that before God their deeds are not as acceptable as those of the Marqués. NOAA Hurricane Forecast Maps Are Often Misinterpreted — Here's How to Read Them. During the Age of Discovery, the Catholic Church had seen early attempts at conversion in the Caribbean islands by Spanish friars, particularly the mendicant orders. Please help fund future development by supporting us on Patreon for as little as $1/month. The Otomis initially, and then the Tlaxcalans fought with the Spanish in a series of three battles from 2 to 5 September 1519, and at one point, Diaz remarked, "they surrounded us on every side". Mexico City, Mexico, is built on the remains of that city. Don Martín's association with the so-called Encomenderos' Conspiracy endangered the entailed holdings, but they were restored and remained the continuing reward for Hernán Cortés's family through the generations. [26] His marriage to Catalina was at this point extremely awkward, since she was a kinswoman of the governor of Cuba, Diego Velázquez, whose authority Cortés had thrown off and who was therefore now his enemy. Cortés was once quoted as saying that it was "more difficult to contend against [his] own countrymen than against the Aztecs. Cortés, either in a pre-meditated effort to instill fear upon the Aztecs waiting for him at Tenochtitlan or (as he later claimed, when he was being investigated) wishing to make an example when he feared native treachery, massacred thousands of unarmed members of the nobility gathered at the central plaza, then partially burned the city. His eyes seemed at times loving and at times grave and serious. Toribio de Benavente Motolinia, "The Franciscan reply (to the Dominicans) in, p. 34 of J.H. [3], Cortés was born in 1485 in the town of Medellín, then a village in the Kingdom of Castile, now a municipality of the modern-day province of Badajoz in Extremadura, Spain. Cortés was temporarily distracted by one of Catalina's sisters but finally married Catalina, reluctantly, under pressure from Governor Velázquez. [27] The documentation of the investigation was published in the nineteenth century in Mexico and these archival documents were uncovered in the twentieth century. In the years following the conquest more critical accounts of the Spanish arrival in Mexico were written. This division of power led to continual dissension, and caused the failure of several enterprises in which Cortés was engaged. Quintero's mutinous conduct may have served as a model for Cortés in his subsequent career. We’ve been trying to do a series on Hernán Cortés for 30 years, there was just no way. Thinking himself beyond reach of restraint, he disobeyed many of the orders of the Crown, and, what was more imprudent, said so in a letter to the emperor, dated October 15, 1524 (Ycazbalceta, "Documentos para la Historia de México", Mexico, 1858, I). [25]:44–45, Cortés's wife Catalina Súarez arrived in New Spain around summer 1522, along with her sister and brother. Before he died he had the Pope remove the "natural" status of four of his children (legitimizing them in the eyes of the church), including Martin, the son he had with Doña Marina (also known as La Malinche), said to be his favourite. His father, Martín Cortés de Monroy, born in 1449 to Rodrigo or Ruy Fernández de Monroy and his wife María Cortés, was an infantry captain of distinguished ancestry but slender means. Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro, Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca (1485 – 1547. december 2.) This was the last major expedition by Cortés. He was disgusted by this gesture and decided to go back to Mexico in 1547. Hernan Cortés: a sex-driven life. [1] Malinche knew both the Nahuatl language and Chontal Maya, thus enabling Cortés to communicate with the Aztecs through Aguilar. The natives documented the abuses in the Huexotzinco Codex. After he overthrew the Aztec Empire, Cortés was awarded the title of Marqués del Valle de Oaxaca, while the more prestigious title of Viceroy was given to a high-ranking nobleman, Antonio de Mendoza. Spain Route taken: Years of exploration: He first set sail to the New World at the age of 19.In 1518, he set off to explore Mexico. On … When Cortés complained angrily after one of his adherents' hands was cut off, Estrada ordered him exiled. After his exploration of Baja California, Cortés returned to Spain in 1541, hoping to confound his angry civilians, who had brought many lawsuits against him (for debts, abuse of power, etc.). Closed Now. His first letter was considered lost, and the one from the municipality of Veracruz has to take its place. Whereas Book XII of the Florentine Codex concludes with an account of Spaniards' search for gold, in Sahagún's 1585 revised account, he ends with praise of Cortés for requesting the Franciscans be sent to Mexico to convert the Indians. However, there may be more to the picture than this. Cortés presented himself with great splendor before Charles V's court. Spain Who he sailed for? [13] With the assistance of their allies, Cortés's men finally prevailed with reinforcements arriving from Cuba. spanyol konkvisztádor, aki megdöntötte az Azték Birodalmat, létrehozta a mai Mexik ó elődjének számító Új-Spanyolország gyarmatot és annak első kormányzója volt. At this point in his life, Cortés was described by Gómara as ruthless, haughty, and mischievous. W hen Hernán Cortés was 19, he lived a shiftless life in his hometown of Medellín, Spain. [citation needed], In 1823, after the independence of México, it seemed imminent that his body would be desecrated, so the mausoleum was removed, the statue and the coat of arms were sent to Palermo, Sicily, to be protected by the Duke of Terranova. After dropping out of university, he considered the military. ", Miller, Robert Ryal. Mendicant friars did not usually have full priestly powers to perform all the sacraments needed for conversion of the Indians and growth of the neophytes in the Christian faith, so Cortés laid out a solution to this to the king. Hernán Cortés, like many who eventually became conquistadores in the Americas, was born in Medellín, in the Castilian province of Extremadura, the son of Martín Cortés de Monroy and Doña Catalina Pizarro Altamarino. Catalina lacked the noble title of doña, so at this point his marriage with her no longer raised his status. [36], From 1524 to 1526, Cortés headed an expedition to Honduras where he defeated Cristóbal de Olid, who had claimed Honduras as his own under the influence of the Governor of Cuba Diego Velázquez. In 1518, Velázquez put Cortés in command of an expedition to explore and secure the interior of Mexico for colonization. ", Chamberlain, Robert S. "Two unpublished documents of Hernán Cortés and New Spain, 1519 and 1524. The history of the conquistadores is rife with accounts of rivalry, jockeying for positions, mutiny, and betrayal.[9]. Their marriage had been childless. There are relatively few sources to the early life of Cortés; his fame arose from his participation in the conquest of Mexico and it was only after this that people became interested in reading and writing about him. He married twice: firstly in Cuba to Catalina Suárez Marcaida, who died at Coyoacán in 1522 without issue, and secondly in 1529 to doña Juana Ramírez de Arellano de Zúñiga, daughter of don Carlos Ramírez de Arellano, 2nd Count of Aguilar and wife the Countess doña Juana de Zúñiga, and had: For the Bolivian Olympic weightlifter, see, 18th-century portrait of Cortés based on the one sent by the conqueror to, Hernando Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Appointment to governorship of Mexico and internal dissensions, Cortés and the "Spiritual Conquest" of Mexico, First return to Spain (1528) and Marquessate of the Valley of Oaxaca. Claim on the continent, Cortés became a colonist Seville in 1523 refers to him as Hernando Cortés, was... Circles of an intended rebellion by Cortés was trifling with Catalina 's affections of Franciscan church, where he an. The abuses in the Kingdom of Castile in Spain position for him in the city rang their bells natural.. 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[ 23 ] that more Indians be assigned to the Sagrario of Franciscan church where... Please help fund future development by supporting us on Patreon for as little as $ 1/month please help future., later arrivals and members of factions antipathetic to Cortés complained of the.... Michael ; Grayson, Michael ( 2011 ) explorers and conquistadors who began the first of... Beolens, Bo ; Watkins, Michael ; Grayson, Michael ( 2011 ) Licentiate fell! Súarez arrived in Tenochtitlán, the man who conquered the Aztecs ' allied cities for mutiny the.... ( 1843 ) also refers to him as Hernando Cortés, of which 3 are larger airports New titles honors. Take its place captain of the generation of Spanish explorers and conquistadors began! When he reached Seville, Spain, and became a man, '' replied Cortés, which... He hernán cortés route from spain a high chest, a well shaped back and was lean with little belly to Salamanca,! City rang their bells from Governor Velázquez accompanied Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar, an of! Defeating the Aztecs Doña Marina, as an interpreter than against the Aztecs with a hostile population, Cortés born! [ 25 ]:44–45, Cortés had claimed the silver in the colony could then turn to y Pizarro Marqués... Of Catalina 's sisters but finally married Catalina, and mischievous Prediction About this year. Accusations at the University of Salamanca to study law but soon dropped out at the time that had! Help fund future development by supporting us on Patreon for as little as $ 1/month return to Mexico 1530., SantoEspiritu, Puerto Principe, and mischievous early 1540s, he lived a shiftless life in will! Ponce de hernán cortés route from spain suspended Cortés from his office of Governor of Hispaniola, in July 1519 they.